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The Learning Conference 2003

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Presentation Details


Learning Tactics and Strategies, and Knowledge Representations Employed by Blind Students in Learning Verbal Materials

Ron Hoz.

Six blind 12th grade students in mainstream high school described their learning of Braille or autiotaped verbal materials.

The students used 12 major tactics (4 prefered): Dividing text into paragraphs, Understanding ideas or text, Summarizing (in writing, mentally/orallyl men tally/orally in text/paragraph), Abstracting as summary, Extracting (in writing, mentally/orally), Identifying/recognizing (links between subjects, ideas, paragraphs), Linking (paragraphs, texts, text and memory, subjects), Elaborating (creating images/pi c tures/structure of text, adding to text details images/pictures from memory or details images/pictures, giving titles), Organizing (in memory, in text), Locating (in text), Storing/encoding in memory (ideas, text structure/sequence, summary, pictures/imag es, paragraphs), and Activating in memory.
The students used4 knowledge representations (3 prefered): Linear ordering, semantic network, schema, and mental image.

Two distinct learning strategies were identified, each used by 3 students:
Idea-led Elaboration of Partitioned Text with knowledge representation comprising hierarchical structure and propositional network and a mental image, and Structure-oriented Abstraction of Intact Text with a linerar ordering knowledge representation.

These learning tactics and strategies and the knowledge representations can account for several known cognitive drawbacks of visually impaired students.


Ron Hoz  (Israel)
Associate Professor in Education, Director of the Division for the Promotion of Educational Professionalism
Department of Education
Ben-Gurion University

A former mathematics teacher, studies dimensions of knowledge and learning in schools, as well as various aspects of initial teacher education. Developed and directs frameworks of professional development in regional educational systems.

  • Learning tactics
  • Learning strategies
  • Knowledge representations
  • Blind students

(30 min Conference Paper, English)