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The Learning Conference 2003

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Presentation Details


A Model for Facilitation in Nursing Education: Model Development

Dr Sebi Lekalakala-Mokgele.

Changes in nursing education have a direct influence on nurse educators because they have to keep abreast of the changes happening in their profession. One of these changes involves the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student -centred approach. Student-centred approaches emphasize that effective learning cannot be limited to the delivery of information but that active participation of the learner is important.

The aim of this study was to develop a model for facilitation in nursing education which can be utilized by facilitators as a guideline to facilitate learning. It is not the intention of the researcher to limit the model to nursing education but to use the principles thereof to other disciplines.

Qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. Two main samples were used, namely the facilitators and the students. The main question that was posed during in-depth group interviews to both the facilitators and the students was: How did you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?.

Informed consent had been obtained from the facilitators and the students where the study was conducted. Tesch (1990) in Cresswell (1994:153-155) and Giorgi (1970) as quoted by Omery (1983:57-58) methods were used to analyze the data. In addition the deductive reasoning strategy was employed. The results were verified with literature control. Emerging from the results was that facilitation was new to facilitators because they were trained to lecture and not to facilitate. They were used to being in control of the students` learning. It was apparent that sharing responsibility was initially a problem for them.

During the interviews the facilitators indicated that they needed to have qualities and skills which will enable them to perform their facilitative roles. They also needed to have an adaptive personality so that they can have a good interpersonal relationship with their students. It was clear that the students were not used to facilitation because they have been lectured in their entire lives of school. Frustrations and anxieties were mentioned which the students indicated to have improved with time once they have adapted to this process of learning. The students mentioned that they wanted to be facilitated by a skilled facilitator, with a pleasant personality who will support them and be available for them. An extensive literature review was done with data analysis and thereafter a model was designed using the combined methods of theory generation of Chinn and Kramer (1999) and Dult and Giffin (1985) as well as the steps of Lancaster and Lancaster (1992).

Concepts obtained from the results of the interviews were defined according to the steps of Copi's (1986:157-161 in Krueger, 1994:61-62) for defining of the concepts. Measures that were used to maintain trustworthiness in this thesis are truth-value, application, consistency and neutrality (Guba and Lincoln,1985:290).

The classification of concepts and the relational concepts followed to formulate relationship statements, the result being to depict related concepts in structural form. The complete visual model was described and presented to experts for evaluation. Feedback from the evaluators was used to adapt and finalize the model. Thereafter the model was again presented to evaluators who approved and accepted it. The model is a unique contribution to nursing education because it set guidelines for a new field of learning in nursing education.


Dr Sebi Lekalakala-Mokgele  (South Africa)
Senior Lecturer in Nursing
School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences
University of the Free State

I am one of twin sisters, born from a family of four girls. I was born in Johannesburg and is the daughter of a pastor.

I am from the Tswana culture and mother of one daughter who is now in grade 3.

I have been a nurse for twenty years and started my basic training at Baragwanath hospital. I have been lecturing for ten years. I started lecturing in Bloemfontein and was the first African female in the department and had to lecture in Afrikaans, which I was not been able to speak. Within 3 months I mastered the language.

  • Facilitator
  • learner
  • self-directed learning
  • lifelong learning
  • critical thinker
  • clinical reasoning
  • group work
  • clinical facilitation assessment
Person as Subject
  • Educators Facilitators Learners

(30 min Conference Paper, English)